Cytotoxic effects of Roundup Classic and its components on NE-4C and MC3T3-E1 cell lines determined by biochemical and flow cytometric assays

By Marianna Oláh, Eniko Farkas, Inna Székács, Robert Horvath, András Székács



Cytotoxic effects of the market leading broad-spectrum, synthetic herbicide product Roundup Classic, its active ingredient glyphosate (in a form of its isopropylamine (IPA) salt) and its formulating surfactant polyethoxylated tallowamine (POE-15) were determined on two murine cell lines, a neuroectodermal stem cell-like (NE-4C) and a high alkaline phosphatase activity osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1). Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, effects on cell viability and cell cycles were examined in five flow cytometry tests, the two former of which were compared by the enzymatic-assay and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. All of the tests indicated the NE-4C cells being more sensitive, than the MC3T3-E1 cell line to the treatments with the target compounds. Higher sensitivity differences were detected in the viability test by flow cytometry (7–9-fold), than by the MTT assay (1.5–3-fold); in the genotoxicity test by the Comet assay (3.5–403-fold), than by the DNA-damage test (9.3–158-fold); and in the apoptosis test by the Annexin V dead cell kit (1.1–12.7-fold), than by the Caspase 3/7 kit (1–6.5-fold). Cell cycle assays indicated high count of cells (~70%) in the G0/G1 phase for MC3T3-E1 cells, than in NE-4C cell (~40%) after 24 h. The order of the inhibitory potency of the target substances has unequivocally been POE-15 > Roundup Classic > > glyphosate IPA salt.


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